To image copulatory scratching additionally the men genital morphology of each varieties, i utilized male and female genitalia as a consequence of dissections. For this specific purpose, i tested more queens (one another virgin and you may physogastric mated of those) and additional freshly came up boys each and every types, pursuing the same testing standards in earlier times demonstrated (see the past parts). We after that dissected each specimens’ metasoma to view the fresh new vaginal part of women and you can people. Shortly after dissection, i instantly photographed this type of structures to be sure the ethics off membranous buildings, especially in females. Dissections followed the procedure before described during the Genital useful morphology, hypothesized plugging tips and you can mating ranking. In the long run, we made use of a good Leica DM one thousand stereomicroscope, coupled with a drawing tubing to arrange this new graphics of your mating couple (?20 magnification, Vaginal useful morphology, hypothesized plugging measures and you may mating ranks) plus the vaginal functional morphology (?80 magnification, Vaginal useful morphology, hypothesized plugging actions and you may mating ranks). We vectorized and you can managed these types of illustrations or photos having fun with an image editor app. I together with put a great Leica DFC420 camera attached to a great Leica M205A stereomicroscope to produce large-resolution photos of women and boys genitalia (?step one.0 contact lens and you will ?fifty magnification, Section dos.4). Very first, i got multifocus colour photos, upcoming i piled her or him in a single image by using the Leica app suite adaptation step three.4.1. I constant this procedure for each genitalia (female and male) out-of most of the tested stingless bee variety, however, you to definitely, M. melapling restrictions.
Zero melanized spots was in fact perceived in checked unmated virgin queens. In most varieties, physogastric queens demonstrated melanized spots on the membranous purse ( Dining table step one), except for M. fasciculata ( Shape step one). The latest membranous purse have been truly the only part with copulatory scratching. In for each and every mated king, patches were always matched, complimentary new inferred position of one’s pair of cock valves into the a man vaginal pill. Patches was located on each pocket, and you will symmetrically organized ( Shape 1). On the other hand, melanized spots looked like permanent, since i seen him or her into the mated queens of various years, considering all of our wing wear group ( Secondary Profile S3 ).
People genital chamber, pattern regarding copulatory marks, and you can ventral look at male vaginal capsules off F. longipes, P. minima, Scaptotrigona aff. postica, Melipona flavolineata, Meters. seminigra, and you may M. fasciculata. From leftover to help you right, images let you know the vaginal chamber regarding virgin queens, brand new vaginal chamber of mated queens, and also the melanized spots available on queens, being expressed by the white arrows on the third column away from images. Singly mated queens show just one group of melanized patches, found getting F. longipes, P. minima, S. aff. postica, M. flavolineata, and you may Yards. seminigra; otherwise a long-label affixed connect, merely included in M. fasciculata. Remated M. seminigra queens, expressed from the black colored asterisk, let you know numerous sets off melanized patches and you may main patches. Regarding the right-hand group of photo, men supplements are showed since activated mating plugs only for Melipona types, showing rotated dick regulators. I as well as let you know an inactivated mating plug to own Meters. fasciculata, once the shown of the light asterisk. Black colored pubs depict a size away from 0.5 mm. Which profile has photo out of six out of all of our eight studied variety (find Topic and methods).
Females genital chamber, pattern away from copulatory scratching, and you can ventral view of men genital products off F. longipes, P. minima, Scaptotrigona aff. postica, Melipona flavolineata, Meters. seminigra, and you can Yards. fasciculata. Off remaining to best, images reveal the vaginal chamber out-of virgin queens, the latest vaginal chamber of mated queens, in addition to melanized spots entirely on queens, that are conveyed by the light arrows throughout the third line of pictures. Singly mated queens tell you one set of melanized spots, revealed having F. longipes, P. minima, S. aff. postica, Meters. flavolineata, and M. seminigra; or a long-name affixed plug, merely utilized in Meters. fasciculata. Remated Meters. seminigra queens, shown of the black colored asterisk, tell you multiple sets out-of melanized spots and you can main patches. From the right hand selection of photos, male products is actually demonstrated as the triggered mating plugs just for Melipona varieties, demonstrating rotated dick regulators. We in addition to inform you an inactivated mating plug having M. fasciculata, as conveyed because of the light asterisk. Black pubs show a size off 0.5 mm. Which figure comes with photos out of six off the seven learned species (get a hold of Point and methods).